D 007 dngos po [Def:] don byed nus pa // bhāva // thing [Def:] That which is able to perform a function.
Analiza terminu
dngos po – 1) matter, material, things, [objective] entity, real things, substance, property, goods, articles, given thing, functioning thing, fact, thing, phenomenon, existent, thing, any perceivable entity serving as a base for cognition, base of imputation, an actual existent, a substantial entity, functional thing, 'a real thing,' subject, category, "that which corresponds to the meaning of a word," activity, "that which is able to perform a function." being, essence, [conditioned] entity. Syn {yod pa}, {ngo bo} existence, entity, nature. impermanent thing, entity, matter, material, substance, substantiality, subject, category. (real) entity/ thing; property; substance; thing [in philosophical context]; matter, material; thing, [concrete functional], functional thing, impermanent thing, entities, actuality, effective thing, entity, topic, concreteness, existence, real things, 'things', being, essence, substance, thing [in philosophical context]˜ entity, a concrete thing; - substance; concrete[ness], existent; thing. 2) article [in a household], property, materials, things, objects, goods, articles, material wealth; article; things/ material goods. 3) bhava the 8th. of {rab byung} Wealth; Bhava, [astrological name for the 8'th year, Male Wood Dog]. Syn {shing pho khyi}. 4) {dgongs pa} meaning [RY]
Translation of the Sanskrit "bhāva", "dravya", "vastu". The general sense of this word is tangible "thing", something made of matter. [D]

Analiza definicji

don – (poniżej [DUFF] + [CT1])
byed – coming to, commentator, effecting, effectuating, hindrance, stoppage, interference, to do, make, create, move, act, work, handle, perform, function [RY]
don byed – to promote/ to act for the welfare of; causing knowledge, creating meaning; benefiting, accomplishing the good [RY]
nus pa – pf. of {nu ba}; 1) to be able, capable; to withstand. Syn {phod pa}; 2) capacity, energy, ability, capability, potential; power, strength, force, efficacious, potency. 3) medical term. inherent quality, 4) function, role, supernormal power, magical powers, powerful, 5) capacity, ability [logic] [RY]
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Autor 1 Rzecz [Def:] To, co może pełnić funkcję.
Autor 2
Autor 3
Autor 4
Autor 5

Dodatkowe informacje

[DUFF] don  I. Translation of the Sanskrit "artha". The base meaning of the Sanskrit, and the Tibetan following it, is of something in mind that is taken as a "meaning understood" by the mind, something that appears to the perceiving consciousness a "fact" or factual. One important note is that it does not mean "object" of mind, even though it is frequently translated that way in certain contexts. Someone might object to this, saying that in Mind-only literature this term means the object perceived by the mind. However, in Mind-only literature, all ཡུལ་ objects of consciousness are considered to be mind itself. Therefore, in that tradition, the word དོན་ is used specifically rather than the more usual word ཡུལ་. The difference in meaning is large. In the end, the word ends up meaning "a meaning for the mind". The main usages are as follows. 1) "Meaning". The simple sense of meaning. E.g., ཚིག་གི་དོན་ "meaning of the words"; དོན་མེད་པ་ "meaningless"; དོན་ཟབ་མོ་ "profound meaning". In some cases "purport", "sense", "significance" are also appropriate. 2) "Fact", a fact for the mind; something which is factual, true, real. Commonly seen as དོན་ལ་ "in fact". 3) "Meaning", "fact". i) A general name for something which is referenced by the mind as a known thing. It is similar to ཡུལ་ but unlike ཡུལ་ is never used to refer to an object of the senses in general but only to something which is "a fact for the mind", "something that is meaning perceived by mind". The term here is used to indicate something in mind that is taken by mind to be a factual entity. In this sense, it is like "object" but the usage in Sanskrit and Tibetan conveys a very different flavour than "object". E.g., སེམས་ཀྱི་དོན་ "fact for the mind". Since ཡུལ་ and དོན་ each have specific meanings in Buddhist philosophy that are similar but not equivalent, there is a considerable problem in translating them both the same way. It seems better to translate the term as a "fact" for the mind. ii) a) The term appears with this same meaning as an abbrev. of དོན་དམ་ which is itself an abbrev. of དམ་པའི་དོན་. In this case the དོན་ has both meanings 1) and 3) above. It is a meaning and it is also a fact appearing to the mind as its reference. b) There are many instances in texts concerning the view where དོན་ is used in that way as a direct abbrev. of དོན་དམ་. However, there are also cases where it is used with a sense of 2) and 3) together. When used this way, the sense is of "a perceptible item that appears to the mind and which is also true, really factual". These varying uses of the one term in Tibetan—which exactly reflect the usage of the Sanskrit original—work very well for the Buddhist material being presented. However, translating these usages of དོན་ into English so that the meaning is accurately conveyed often becomes problematic. The Indians and Tibetans used this one word in several similar contexts. It is not really that their word had more than one connotation; it is just that the word was used with the basic sense "meaning" in ways that were acceptable in the Indian and Tibetan languages. The real solution is for us to do the same in English. (It probably will not sound euphonious at first but the world is fickle and this could be brought into popular usage.) Without doing something like that, the use of variant terms in English in this particular case will yet again prevent the transmission of deeper meanings of Buddhist philosophy. iii) This meaning is also used in the sense of the actual one as opposed to something which only approximates it. In this case, it is one of a pair of terms: དོན་ meaning the factual / actual one and དཔེ་ meaning the similitude only of the same. 4) Used in conjunction with other words to indicate something done in relation to a certain thing; "an aim", "a purpose", "an objective", "purport". E.g., སྤྱི་དོན་ is an overall presentation; it is made for the purpose of giving a general view of a subject and བསྡུས་དོན་ is an abbreviated presentation, made with the objective of giving the meaning in condensed form. E.g., རང་དོན་ is one's own aims / purpose /objectives in contrast to གཞན་དོན་ the aims etc., of others; སྒེར་དོན་ is "private purposes" or "the private sector" in contrast to ཞུང་དོན་ "government purposes"; སྲིད་དོན་ "secular" in contrast to ཆོས་དོན་ "religious"; མིའི་དོན་ "human objectives / the aims of humans"; སྐྱེས་བོ་དམ་པས་དོན་སྒྲུབ་ཤོག། "may the holy beings achieve their aims / accomplish their objectives". 5) In studies in general and in books in particular, a specific "topic" or "point" and also "section", "heading". The term གནས་ is used in a similar sense but is usually used to refer to a higher level of division; whereas དོན་ refers to the specific headings and sub-headings, གནས་ refers to a whole "subject" or "area" of knowledge. 6) Used in Tibetan medicine to mean an internal "organ" (because it is something which is meaningful to the function of the human body). II. <ཚིག་གྲོགས་ phrase assistive> The phrase assistive used to construct the written numbers from seventy-one to seventy-nine. It is written after the word for seventy to connect it with the digit that then follows it e.g., བདུན་ཅུ་དོན་གཅིག་ "seventy-one". 1) When the number is written in full, the དོན་ is placed between the seventy and the cardinal number as a separator, e.g., བདུན་ཅུ་དོན་དྲུག་ "seventy-six". 2) When the number is written in abbrev. the དོན་ is the standard abbrev. for བདུན་ཅུ་ "seventy" e.g., in དོན་དྲུག་ "seventy-six". See under TIBETAN NUMBERS 0 TO 250 at the beginning of the dictionary for more information. [CT1 s.19] The text says: The definition of a thing: That which is able to perform a function. All the Buddhist traditions accept this definition of a thing. This definition is not dis- puted. A thing is that which is able to perform a function. Translator: In English, the way we translate it is very clear and definitive, but in Tibetan, tön  has a number of different meanings and contexts, such as “function” or “to benefit.” For Tibetans, the word tön has many shades of meaning given particular contexts. There is actually a discussion about the meaning of tön in the definition. But here, the meaning of tön is “function.” ALTG: Whatever is a phenomenon that is able to perform a function is called a “thing.” This definition is debated in Tibetan because the meaning of the words is ambiguous. It could mean “to perform the welfare of sentient beings” or “that which is able to perform a function.” It is the same word in Tibetan, so the meaning is debated. But in English, the meaning is obvious.

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