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D 037 byed rgyu [Def:] rang ‘bras rang gi rdzas rgyun ma yin pa gtso bor skyed byed // kāraṇa hetu // enabling cause [Def:] That which primarily produces something that is not the continuum of its own substance as its specifi c result (same as cooperative cause).
ανάλυση όρου

byed – coming to, commentator, effecting, effectuating, hindrance, stoppage, interference, to do, make, create, move, act, work, handle, perform, function [RY]
rgyu – αιτία (D 032)
byed rgyu – acting cause, efficient cause; co-operative cause | productive cause [RY]
byed pa'i rgyuphrase> "The operative cause". One of the རྒྱུ་དྲུག་ six causes q.v.[D]

ανάλυση ορισμού

rang – See {rjes yi rang} himself, self, self spontaneous, oneself, myself, etc, natural, own, intrinsic; self, itself, one's own, inherent, [sva ]; spontaneous/ natural / self-/ own; very; 1) oneself, own, self. 2) intrinsic, natural [RY]
‘bras – 1) see {'bras bu}. 2) rice. 3) fruit. 4) grain. 5) see {'bras nad} cancer [RY]
rang – (ανωτέρω)
rdzas – (material) substance; substantial entity; article, object, thing/ matter, substance/ riches, possessions; real, material thing, materials, thing, matter, object. ritual objects 11.1 [RY] (patrz też D 035)
rgyun – continua, continuum [logic] / rgyun - 1) continuity, flow, stream, continuation, continuum. 2) duration, period, time, everlasting; 3) daily; often, usually [RY]
ma yin pa – is not; to be not [RY]
gtso bo – primary / main [logic] [RY]
– essential, lord, chief, leader, foremost, principal one; chief figure; chief, lord, principal, leader, foremost, main, central, essential, chief / main figure, principal deity, chief figure; leading principle, basis, the primary; the highest, the most excellent, main or chief figure, principal; primal matter. Syn {rang bzhin}; chief, lord, principal, leader, foremost, main, central, essential, chief / main figure, leading principle, basis, the primary [RY]
skyed pa – ) {skyed pa, bskyed pa, bskyed pa, skyed} trans. v.; 1) to create, develop, engender, cultivate, form, generate, procreate, give rise to, give birth to, bring into being, produce, cause, reproduce, father, cause to germinate, grow, bring up, nurse up, bring on. 2) to visualize, envision, imagine, picture, develop a visualization of. 3) to make grow larger / bigger, widen, expand, increase, cause to progress. 4) to arouse, inspire, instill. II) profit, gain, benefit, interest [RY]
byed – (ανωτέρω)
skyed byed – 1) the producer. Syn {skyed mkhan}. 2) the navel chakra. Syn {sprul pa'i 'khor lo, kyed pa po} [RY]
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Συγγραφέας 1 υποβοηθητική/ενισχυτική αιτία [Ορισμ] αυτό που σαν συγκεκριμένο αποτέλεσμά του παράγει κυρίως κάτι που δεν είναι η συνέχιση της υπόστασής του (ίδιο με την συνεργό αιτία).
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[DUFF]  byed pa  I. v.t. བྱས་པ་/ བྱེད་པ་/ བྱ་བ་/ བྱོས་/. The standard verb "to do" which in Tibetan refers to anything done with body, speech, or mind and therefore often needs to be translated by "to make", "to create", "to act". II. Added after other verbs as an auxiliary to that verb to show specifically that an agent is "doing" a transitive action. E.g., the construction ཤིང་མཁན་གྱིས་ཤིང་གཅོད་། has the general sense "an axeman is cutting a tree" however by adding བྱེད་པ་ after the verb like this ཤིང་མཁན་གྱིས་ཤིང་གཅོད་པར་བྱེད་པ།, it forces the sense that there is an axeman who is doing a transitive action of cutting the tree. This type of construction can even be used with intransitive verbs to provide a sense that the verb is being done. See also 2) below under noun, which is related. III. 1) i) "Function", "action", "the doing of". In Tibetan grammar when discussing transitive verbs, this is a term that indicates the doing of the action. This should be differentiated from བྱ་བ་ which in transitive verb theory refers to the action that ends up being carried out on the object, "the function or act that will be performed". In other words, the present tense of this verb is used to create a noun that refers to the actual doing of the action and the future tense of this verb is used to indicate the action that ends up being accomplished on the object. E.g., in the standard Tibetan example of a woodsman cutting wood with an axe, the term བྱེད་པ་ will refer to the actual "cutting of wood" and that བྱ་བ་ will refer to the fact that the action overall is that "wood will be cut". ii) In non-grammatical contexts, it is the བྱེད་ལས་ or འཕྲིན་ལས་ "function", "action", "operation", "doing" of something q.v. Note that this refers to what a thing is actually doing; how it is functioning, how it is acting, how it is operating. And again, this has to be distinguished from the བྱ་ལས་ which is what something will do in general, how it will function / act / operate in general. 2) "Instrument", "means". In Tibetan grammar, when discussing transitive verbs, the བྱེད་པ་ is also "the instrument" or "means" used by the བྱེད་པ་པོ་ agent to perform བྱ་བ་ the action on the བྱ་བའི་ཡུལ་ the object receiving the action. This corresponds exactly to the instrument used by an agent in a transitive action in English grammar. The technical term for this in English is "complement" and the technical term for "complement" in Tibetan is ཕལ་པ་. In other words, the བྱེད་པ་ is also the complement used to do the action of a transitive action. Accordingly, the instrument, which is the complement, of a transitive action is defined in Tibetan grammar like this: བྱེད་པ་ནི་བདག་པའི་ཆ་རྐྱེན་ཏེ་བྱེད་པ་པོ་གཞན་དང་དངོས་སུ་འབྲེལ་བའི་བྱེད་པ་པོ་ཕལ་པ། "the instrument for doing (note the present tense) the action is that factor of the self-side (meaning the agent's side of the action) which is the condition (by which the action is actually carried out); it is the complement of the agent where the agent is in actual relationship to the other (meaning the object's side of the action)". In the standard, Tibetan grammatical example used to illustrate transitive verb theory, the axeman is the བྱེད་པ་པོ་ agent / doer and རྒྱུ་ principal cause that performs the action; an སྟ་རེ་ axe is བྱེད་པ་ the instrument, the རྐྱེན་ conditional cause that provides the (verb meaning 1.i) above) function of the action of cutting. The agent is called the གཙོ་བོ་ principal and the instrument is called the ཕལ་པ་ complement. The ཤིང་ wood is the བྱ་བའི་ཡུལ་ object of the action to be accomplished; and ཤིང་གཅད་པ་ is བྱ་བ་ the action to be accomplished. 3) Tibetan grammar texts concerning verb theory are very hard to read. That is compounded by several factors. One of them is that the term བྱེད་པ་པོ་ is regularly abbreviated to both བྱེད་པ་ and བྱེད་ which can then be confused with all of the definitions contained in here. i) "The agent". An abbrev. of བྱེད་པ་པོ་ meaning the agent of a transitive action. E.g., see བྱ་བྱེད་ལས་ "action, agent, and karma". ii) "The agentive (case)". An abbrev. of བྱེད་པ་པོ་ meaning the རྣམ་དབྱེ་གསུམ་པ་ third case. E.g., in བྱེད་པའི་སྒྲ་ "term of the agentive" which is also shortened to བྱེད་པའི་སྒྲ་. 4) A further part of Tibetan verb theory is related to the two topics of transitive/intransitive and tense formation. It concerns the use of verbs, like བྱེད་པ་, that are attached after another verb. E.g., in གསལ་བར་བྱེད་པ་. English grammar has something superficially like this, e.g., "is going" where the linking verb is joins with the present participle of to go and becomes what is called an "auxiliary verb". Because of this, several scholars and translators have dubbed Tibetan verbs in this mode as "auxiliary verbs". While that is not wrong, it brings a major problem in its wake. Tibetan verb theory at this level contains many specialized features that have no parallel in English. There is a whole system of construction of these verb phrases that imparts a great deal of information to the reader. The details of this are so exceptionally complex that they cannot be presented in here. The subject was originally set out tersely in the རྟགས་ཀྱི་འཇུག་པ་ Application of Gender Signs and is clarified in commentaries to it, like the [KSM]. For example, when the present tense of a verb is combined with the present tense བྱེད་པ་ of the transitive verb "to do" a phrase is produced which can be a verb phrase or a noun phrase with a verb-like action, or can be a noun e.g., the present tense of the verb གཅོད་པ་ "the cutting" is joined with བྱེད་པ་ to make གཅོད་པར་བྱེད་པ་. This phrase can mean "is cutting" in a standard verbal sense. It is also defined to have the meaning, "that thing which does the actual work of cutting and which is connected with the subject side of the transitive action" in other words, it functions to indicate "the cutter" part of a transitive action. In this sense it can either be the agent itself or the complement of the agent: e.g., ཤིང་གཅོད་པར་བྱེད་པའི་-རེ་ is "the axe which is being used to cut wood". When the longer phrase has the phrase linkers and assistives removed, it becomes གཅོད་བྱེད་ and this has its own, particular meaning. It is now a true noun but one which is still known to be related to the action of cutting AND is known to be on the side of the agent of a transitive action. This kind of usage translates into English as "a cutter". E.g., in ཤིང་གཅོད་བྱེད་ཀྱི་-རེ་ which literally says "the axe which is the cutter for wood" and which would be translated into English as "the axe for cutting wood" or the "wood-cutter, an axe" or "the tool for cutting wood, an axe". Similarly, using the verb for writing, a phrase like ཡི་གེ་འབྲི་བར་བྱེད་པའི་སྨྱུ་གུ་ means "the pen being used to write" and when the verb phrase is reduced by eliminating the phrase assistive and connector in it, ཡི་གེ་འབྲི་བྱེད་སྨྱུ་གུ་ comes about which now means "a pen, a thing that writes letters" which translates as "writing pen", "pen for writing letters", "the writing instrument, a pen". E.g., the verb གསལ་བ་ joined with བྱེད་པ་ comes out first to གསལ་བར་བྱེད་པ་ meaning either the verbal sense of clarifying or making obvious or the noun sense of that thing which is clarifying or making obvious. When contracted to གསལ་བྱེད་ it becomes a noun that indicates some agent that performs the action of making clear or obvious. E.g., "the clarifier". This is a difficult subject but a crucial one. The spelling of Tibetan verbs and their connection with other verbs contains a very extensive system for providing exact information about whether the terms involved show the subject or object and about their exact role in the transitive action. A lack of understanding of this point has led to profoundly bad mistakes in the translation of Tibetan Buddhism. For example, the term འདུ་བྱེད་ q.v. is the Tibetan equivalent of the Sanskrit "saṃskāra". It is a noun which, in Tibetan, imparts this whole meaning: "that agent which causes the coming together of things". Not understanding the implications of the construction with བྱེད་, this has been mis-translated as "formation" and has introduced a major misunderstanding in doing so. The word "formation" is on the object side of the action i.e., it is the thing that results after the action has been done. The Tibetan term refers to the subject side of the action i.e., it is referring to the agent that causes the formation to come about. The correct translation—and the meaning intended by the Buddha—is "former" (that which causes a formation) or "compositor", etc.; this can be clearly seen through the definition of saṃskāra which is "a term for the afflictions in their role as the things that cause the coming together of the various facets of a future life or the events experienced by a being in a future time". All-in-all, when you see a term which is a verb form followed by བྱེད་, start by finding the meaning of the verb form then adding "-or" to it and you will have a rough sense of the term's meaning. E.g., སྣང་བ་ is a verb meaning to be illuminated, apparent; by making སྣང་བར་བྱེད་པ་ and then condensing to སྣང་བྱེད་ and calling it "illuminator" or "apparent-or" we get a good sense of the meaning of the term. Finally, this same discussion also applies to the other tense forms of this verb. The use of བྱ་བ་ as an auxiliary brings its own sets of meanings in dependence on the verb and tense connected with it. Roughly speaking, it puts the meaning on the object side of the transitive action but the true situation is much more complex than that. 5) Note that this and other verbs can be applied as an auxiliary in the way just described but to an intransitive verb. In that case, the meaning produced is "causes the action of the intransitive verb to happen". E.g., བྲུག་པ་ means "filled up to overflowing". The construction ཆར་པ་མང་གིས་ཆུ་བྲུག་པར་བྱེད་པ་ "heavy rains caused the rivers to swell to overflowing". Note that in a similar way the intransitive verb applied to another verb gives the intransitive sense of "brings on the other verbal action". 6) "Producer(s)". In Sanskrit and Tibetan grammar both, the "producer" is the part of the head which is used to produce the sound of the letters. The producers are defined in grammar texts. The following is culled from [BYT]: "The sounds of the letters each have a སྐྱེ་གནས་ production place which is the basis from which the sounds of the letters are produced. The production place is the basic cause of the sounds, like the housing of a bell. The བྱེད་པ་ producer is the cause of the sounds being evoked from those places, much like the striker of the bell is the cause that evokes the sounds from the housing of a bell. A particular effort is required to make a bell sound and likewise, each of the letters has a particular རྩོལ་བ་ effort which is needed to produce that sound. The effort is a condition for the production of the sounds, like the hand is the condition needed to actually produce sounds from a bell with its striker. There are different traditions of Tibetan grammar with differences in how the production places, producers, and efforts are defined. According to the tradition of སི་ཏུ་ཆོས་ཀྱི་ཉིན་བྱེད་ Situ Rinpoche, there are five producers [SGC]: "1. སྣ་དང་ཀླད་སྦུག་ nose and cranial cavity for letters made at the throat; 2. མཆུ་ the lips for letters made from the lips; 3. ལྕེ་དབུས་ the centre of the tongue for letters made at the palate; 4. ལྕེ་རྩེ་ the tip of the tongue for letters made at the teeth; 5. སྤྱི་བོ་སྟེ་ལྕེ་རྩེར་ཉེ་བ་ the area at the tip of the tongue for the ར་ letter." 6) "Calculators". In Tibetan astrology there are eleven items that are used as the means for making the astrological calculations for any specific person. These are the བྱེད་པ་བཅུ་གཅིག་ "eleven (astrological) calculators".

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