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Indeks
L 062 ‘du shes [Def:] mtshan mar ‘dzin pa // saṃjña // discrimination [Def:] That which apprehends characteristics.
Analiza terminu

‘du shes – Skt. samjna, 1) notion, conception, perception, activity, apprehension, concept, consciousness, consideration, discernment, discrimination, discrimination, distinguishing, idea, ideation, image, name, recognition, feelings, thought, perceptions; one of the {phung po lnga}. 2) {'du shes pa} to perceive; hold a notion / an idea, entertain an idea, feel an inclination of, think [RY]
– (DUFF poniżej)
Analiza definicji

mtshan – night, name, mark or sign, token, badge, symptom; {mtshan ma}. 1) mark, sign, symbol. adj. symbolic. 2) (h). {ming} name, epithet, appellation, title. 3) reference. 4) sex, gender. 5. night. 6. to be marked; epithet, mark, title, name; major mark of (physical) perfection; name, title [RY]
mtshan ma – symptom, quality, "mark" or "sign" (in more philosophical contexts); marks, signs, symptoms/ shapes, peculiarities; mark, distinguishing mark, [nimitta]; (ordinary) defining characteristic; indication; 1) quality. 2) sign, marks, identifiable attributes, characteristic, designation, symbol 3) symbolic, symbolically. 4) omen. 5) symptom. 6) adornment. 7) mark of existence, characteristics of substantiality, signs of own-being [Syn. ?? {mtshan} 8) conceptual reality [RY]
‘dzin pa – subject, that which apprehends, [graha]; subject; memorize, retain/ to regard; to be a repository, to hold onto, to hold, adhere to; taking hold of, holder, accept, grasping, clinging, "the holder" or "fixation", "the watcher". catch, grab, apprehend, the grasper 'the watcher', to grasp, hold, cling, fixate, clinging, grasping, holding, fixation, retention, attachment, to bear, bearing in mind. 3) retain, comprehend the teachings, one of the {chos spyod bcu} 10 religious practices. take up, to accept, be accepted, to hold, hold on to, fixate on, cling to, holds, taken up, {bzung ba, gzung ba, zung}; to possess [RY]
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Autor 1 rozróżnianie [Def:] To, co ujmuje charakterystyki.
Autor 2
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Dodatkowe informacje

[DUFF] 'du shes –  form of འདུ་ཤེས་པ་. "Perceptions" or "cognition(s)", though neither is at all satisfactory. Translation of the Sanskrit [NDS] "samjñā". This term refers to a particular aspect of dualistic mind's function. It is the aspect which creates and works with the མཚན་མ་ conceptual structures used to define the things in dualistic mind. For instance, if the eye consciousness sees a red flower, the dualistic mind needs to create a conceptual structure "a mark or a name (which is the real meaning of མཚན་མ་)" by which the redness and flowerness can be referenced in the thinking mind. The operation of samjñā as a whole is an important component of the psychophysical structure of sentient beings. In fact, it is such an important factor in the deluded existence of sentient beings that the Buddha singled out it as one of the five aggregates which make up sentient beings. In the ཕུང་པོ་ལྔ་ five aggregates or skandhas, it is the third skandha called འདུ་ཤེས་ཀྱི་ཕུང་པོ་ samjñāskandha. The first skandha of form describes the forms that sentient beings create in their delusion, the second skandha of feeling describes the sensations that occur with any experience and become the basis for creating the afflictions of the fourth skandha which drive the being into further existences. The third skandha describes the basic process of using concepts to deal with the perceptions of the sentient being's world, a process which results in sentient beings remaining within a conceptualized version of their worlds instead of within direct perceptions that could eventually lead them out of cyclic existence. The fourth skandha describes not the basic conceptual signals but the conceptual forces (the afflictions) that have the power to create further formations of cyclic existence. The fifth skandha describes the dualistic consciousnesses which perceive the dualistic world the sentient being has created. There is no word in the English language which is specifically fits the meaning of samjña (though some disciplines of psychology, etc., claim that they do have specific words for it, e.g., perception). Because of this, a variety of words have been used to translate it e.g., "cognition", "conception", "recognition", "perception", "discrimination". All of these terms fit in one way or another, however none of them produce a clear understanding in an English speaking person of what is being referred to. This, therefore, remains one of the worst translated and understood words in general Buddhism. It has been translated with "ideas" but ideas are the བློ་སྣ་ stuff that comes up on the surface of the rational mind, they are the རྟོག་པ་ or རྣམ་པར་རྟོག་པ་ thoughts of the dualistic mind, whereas འདུ་ཤེས་ refers to the subtle conceptual structures which are used as the "currency" or "the building blocks" of all dualistic thinking.

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