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D 010 rang mtshan [Def:] don dam par don byed nus pa // svalakṣhana // specifically characterized phenomenon That which is ultimately able to perform a function.
Analiza terminu

rang – [sva] (zaimek zwrotny) się, siebie, własny, swój [RY, D], wrodzony, wewnetrzny [RY],
rang byung – samopowstały, automatycznie [D]
mtshan – nazwa, znak, symbol, przejaw [RY, D],
rang mtshan = SCP (szczególnie charakteryzowane zjawisko) [RY, D]
Analiza definicji

don dam pa – (p. niżej DUFF)
byed – robić, działać [RY, D]
nus pa – zdolność, umiejętność, energia, potencjalność, moc [RY, D]
⏷ Dodatkowe informacje na dole strony ⏷ ⏷ a także możliwość skomentowania ⏷ (liczba komentarzy – 0)
Autor 1 Zjawisko szczególnie charakteryzowane. [Def:] To, co jest dysponowane do faktycznego pełnienia funkcji.
Głównie na podstawie analizy przeprowadzonej przez Duffa wybrane zostało słowo 'faktyczny', na określenie sytuacji, kiedy coś jest zgodne z tym 'jak to jest naprawdę'. Propozycja Duffa – superfactual – wydaje się niepotrzebna, gdyż w sensie logicznym coś jest zgodne z 'tym jak jest', albo nie, i dlatego nie ma potrzeby stopniowania na mniej lub bardziej faktyczne. W użyciu potocznym taka sytuacja mogłąby mieć miejsce, gdy odnosimy ją do opisu jakiegoś zdarzenia, w którym pomieszano fakty i rzeczy wymyślone.
Słowo 'dysponowane' zostało zaproponowane przez profesora Kosiora.
Autor 2 Zjawisko szczególnie charakteryzowane [Def] To, co jest w pełni dysponowane do pełnienia funkcji.
Autor 3
Autor 4
Autor 5

Dodatkowe informacje

DDUFF:  dam pa'i don  "Superfactual". The abbreviated form is དོན་དམ་ q.v. Translation of the Sanskrit "paramārtha". I. There are two terms that are crucial to any discussion of the view in Buddhism. They are the terms used when speaking of the བདེན་པ་གཉིས་ "two truths". One of them is the term here and the second is its partner ཀུན་རྫོབ་ "fiction". Both of them have been singularly badly translated into English. Up till now, this term has been regularly translated as "the absolute" but that is mistaken. A long discussion of both terms is given under ཀུན་རྫོབ་ "fiction" in order to clarify the meanings of both and to arrive at correct translations; see that entry. Etymology. The Sanskrit is constructed as follows: the བྱིངས་ root of the word is a noun root, "artha". That has the ཉེ་བསྒྱུར་ modifier "parama" added in the prefixed position to be "parama+artha". The rules of saṃdhi make it paramārha. The root "artha" itself is derived from the roots "ṛi" meaning to know something as it really is and "than" which means "a particular object" with the result that "artha" has a wide range of meanings. In this context, it means "a fact for the mind". It is similar to object when saying "the object known by the mind". However, it does not mean the object from the object's side but what appears to and is the fact of the object for the mind when that object is known. "Parama" adds the meaning "better, superior" in general and "the better one, the one gone higher" of a pair in particular. The resulting "paramārtha" then has the meaning of "a fact that appears to mind which is superior". The etymology is important to understanding the term but the usage is equally important. The term was well-established in ancient India at the time of Buddha and is still widely used in various spiritual traditions in India today. In use, it means "the fact of reality that is known by the mind of a spiritually advanced person and which is superior to the fictions known by the ordinary people who are not spiritually advanced. The term was perfectly translated into Tibetans with དམ་པའི་དོན་ where དམ་པའི་ corresponds to "parama" and དོན་ corresponds "artha". The translation in English would be "superior fact". The existing translation "absolute" is seriously inadequate as can be seen from the above analysis, therefore a new term is required. Some translators in recent years have recognized this and have been using alternative, pre-existing English words instead of "absolute", e.g. "ultimate" or "superior". Ultimate has the first problem that its meaning does not match the meaning of this term. Secondly, ultimate is an exact match for the Tibetan term མཐར་ཐུག་པ་. Finally the Tibetan term མཐར་ཐུག་པ་ which should be translated as "ultimate" often appears side by side with this term in Tibetan texts and each of the two does provide its own, specific meaning which must be distinguished from the other. The term "superior" at least has the first half of the meaning of this term, however, it misses the main meaning of "factual"; it is not sufficient. Having looked for years, I can say that there is no currently existing word in the English language that can function as an equivalent of this term. There has been talk of newly constructed terms to fill the gap for this and other terms that are not fulfilled by the existing vocabulary of the English language. Based on the above analysis of the meaning of "parāmartha"—an analysis which is supported by all major Tibetan writers of all schools, I propose "superfactual" as a new word that could provide a very good translation. This new word represents the Sanskrit and the Tibetan that copies it, well; it has roots that match fairly well the roots of the original so that even the etymology works; it is fairly euphonious (compared to other possibilities); and in particular, it works well in tandem with my proposed translations for the paired term ཀུན་རྫོབ་ "fictional" q.v. II. In general, the term is used to describe the kind of reality that appears to non-deluded minds. In the sutra system, any appearance for all beings in cyclic existence is categorized as ཀུན་རྫོབ་ "fictional". In the sutra system, the aryas who have transcended saṃsāra, with the exception of the buddha, see དམ་པའི་དོན་ the superfactual in their མཉམ་བཞག་ equipoise on emptiness however, their སྣང་བ་ appearances in རྗེས་ཐོབ་ post-attainment are still ཀུན་རྫོབ་ "fictional" because they are still a product of obscuration. The situation for a buddha is a little bit more difficult and gets into deep points of philosophy. A buddha has appearances for himself and appearances for others. Of the two, some say that the first is regarded as དམ་པའི་དོན་ the superfactual and the second is regarded as ཀུན་རྫོབ་ "fictional", though there is a lot of argument over it. It would be too much to try to discuss it here. Note that this term is not pejorative; it refers to the non-fictional realities that non-deluded beings experience. More than that, it is complimentary in the sense that the term is used only for the realities of spiritually advanced persons. The full weight of the way the term was used in ancient India within spiritual traditions was "reality as it is, which is the holy truth known by the spiritually advanced beings". The sense of a holy truth is also contained in "parama" and it certainly is used that way. Interestingly, the Tibetan for that, དམ་པ་ is often translated into English with "holy".

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